Fresh melon, watermelon, pumpkin
Melons - watermelons, melons and pumpkins belong to the family Cucurbitaceae vegetables and used in the mature form.
Melons grown on the fields before the virgin lands - melon fields, hence the name of their.
Watermelons in Uzbekistan began to cultivate them in the XV century, and to the XIX century, they were a rare delicacy.
Currently watermelons grown wherever allow soil and climatic conditions, moreover, and watermelons are grown in greenhouses.
Based on the properties and uses of, there are three main types of watermelons canteens, tsukatnye and feed.
Tablespoons watermelon characterized tender sweet flesh red, carmine or crimson color, is used as a dessert, salting, cooking watermelon and honey wines.
Flesh of watermelon contains highly digestible natural sugars, most of which are fructose and glucose, sucrose less. Also watermelon contains vitamins, amino acids, and minerals. Watermelons contain high amounts of iron salts. Colour of flesh due to the presence of dyes carotene and lycopene. Energy value of watermelons 38 kcal per 100 g of product.
Watermelons are harvested fields in the stage of full maturity when the fruit is stored in up to 8-10% of sugars. Fruits become bright color, shiny surface, stalk dries.
The main identifying features varieties of watermelons are the shape, size, color, surface pattern, texture and taste of the flesh.
Quality watermelons valued in accordance with GOST 7177-80 "Watermelon fresh food. Specifications." According to said GOST watermelon fruit must be mature, whole, healthy, unpolluted, with shape, color and luster characteristic bark of mature fruit.
Ripe fruit - with a pronounced pattern bark surface is shiny, and the stalk tendril shrunken, red pulp of various shades, seeds ripened, black or brown. Consistency fruit pulp is juicy, tender, without mucilaginized, sweet taste. When you hit a palm mature watermelon vibrates when struck produces moderately bent finger hollow sound when compressed along the longitudinal axis - a faint crunch.
Ripe fruit - picture and bark color lighter than the mature fruit. Gloss is well expressed, and the stalk tendril shrunken, yellow spot primer. Flesh color changes to orange. Consistency pulp loose, fibrous, appear around mucilaginized seed nests emptiness. Malosedoben or fruit inedible.
Unripe fruits - Matte peduncle juicy neuvyadshy mustache. Flesh pink or pale pink color, edible part of the boundary between the crust and barely noticeable. Consistency pulp rough, malosochnaya, savory. Seeds white nevyzrevshie. Upon impact, crooked finger ringing sound.
Crumpled considered watermelon fruit, which darkened the cut flesh, separated from the crust.
Homeland melon Middle and Asia Minor. In Europe, this culture has moved in ancient times in Russia fell in the XVII century greenhouses of England.
Characteristic anatomical structure melons (unlike watermelons) is the presence of seeds in the middle of the fetus in one seed chamber. Melons more thermophilic than watermelons.
Melon is a juicy, sweet, aromatic pulp containing up to 19% of sugars, mainly sucrose. Also melon contains vitamins, organic acids, carotene. As melons and watermelons contain high amounts of iron salts. Energy value melons 39 kcal per 100 g of product.
Household botanical varieties of melons characterized origin (Central European), ripening, shape, surface condition, fruit size, texture, taste and aroma of the pulp.
The shape of the melon are spherical, oval, oblong ovate. Fruit surface may be smooth, ridged, knobby, warty, fully or partially covered with a mesh of suberized cracks. Crustal thickness from 4 to 12 mm and more. Flesh different varieties of melons has a white, orange or green. Consistency can be fibrous pulp, crumbly, crunchy, juicy, viscous. Melon size large, medium and small. Distinguish fruit flavor with vanilla, pear, grassy, melon specific odor.
Best melons for sweetness and taste consider Central Asian, particularly chardzhrousskie.
Melon fruit consumed fresh, as well as used for making candied fruits, purees, jams, compotes, honey melon, mousses, pickles and dried, dried and frozen foods.
Quality melons evaluated by GOST 7178-85 "Melons fresh. Specifications", according to which the fruits of melons should be fresh, whole, clean, healthy, mature. Norms on individual indicators set depending on the timing of maturation of melons.
Depending on the varieties of melon persist from several days up to 4-6 months.
The high content of sugars, vitamins, iron salts melons recommend to use to improve the blood, cardiovascular diseases, liver disease, kidney disease, anemia.
Pumpkin is known since ancient times, the people of Mexico used it for another 3000 years BC. During excavations Peruvian tombs were found pumpkin seeds. In ancient Egypt, India and some varieties of pumpkins, too, knew and loved. In Europe, in Russia and then brought a pumpkin after the discovery of America, and it quickly spread to the southern regions, and now it is grown in almost all regions of the country, except the Far North.
According to the botanical classification of pumpkins fruit belongs to the berry-like fruit. Do pumpkins enviable productivity. Weight individual instances reaches 100kg or more. Wayne Hockney, who lives in New Milford (USA), grew a pumpkin that weighed ... 250 kg. Here is a berry!
Pumpkin grows well in any soil, frost resistant, beautiful, useful, but, alas, not very tasty. The people used to say: "Watermelon is sweet, fragrant melon, pumpkin and useful." All of the benefits of this undeservedly unloved vegetable and have something to remember.
Nutritional and biological value due to the content of pumpkin in her carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, organic acids, and a number of other important compounds.
Pumpkin is rich in pectin primarily - colloidal complex polysaccharides. Them in a pumpkin more than apples or beets. Pectin (readily absorb poisons and harmful heavy metals that enter the body through food. Moreover, they contribute to the excretion of cholesterol and bind water and thus prevent dehydration in cases involving dyspepsia. They possess and disinfectant properties, so how to absorb harmful bacteria and mucus.'s why pumpkin is useful to include in the diet suffering from atherosclerosis and chronic diseases of the colon. and another valuable property of pectins: they evoke a feeling of stomach fullness and satiety, so people who are prone to be overweight and obese desirable to use in your diet pumpkin.
In the pumpkin flesh is relatively low in fiber, so it does not cause excessive gut motility, does not irritate the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines, it is easy to digest. Recommend boiled pumpkin in clinical nutrition in diseases of the digestive system, especially with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
In the edible part of the pumpkin found a large variety of vitamins. Most noteworthy carotene, or provitamin A, whereby fruit pulp gets yellow. In this matter the pumpkin more than cabbage, potatoes, tomatoes, oranges, lemons, strawberries, raspberries, currants. Only carrots, rowan yes buckthorn not concede superiority pumpkin carotene content. In the pumpkin pulp are also ascorbic acid, vitamin B, PP, E.
Found in pumpkin and calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and cobalt. Especially a lot of potassium in it, so the pumpkin dishes are very useful in cardiovascular diseases and various kidney diseases. Pumpkin - a valuable source of copper. And its significance to the body is very high: it is actively involved in metabolism, in the processes of tissue respiration and hematopoiesis.
Pumpkin has very low calorie: 100 g - at least 30 kilocalories, while, for example, 100 g of potato - almost three times greater, and 100 g of rye bread - seven times more.
No wonder the pumpkin dishes are recommended for obese and full-bodied.
Use pumpkin raw, boiled, baked, steamed, fried or stewed. In the home cooking of these fruits to cook a delicious puree, creams, puddings, cakes, boiled sweet porridge. Young pumpkin vines 10 cm long, peeled and boiled in salted water, used instead of asparagus.
Since ancient times, pumpkin seeds are considered a favorite national delicacy. But they have a major application in medicine. It has long been observed that pumpkin seeds - good anthelmintic. During the Great Patriotic War, pumpkin seeds as an anthelmintic have attracted the attention of scientific medicine. They were tested in clinics and is now widely used her medical practice.